月別アーカイブ: 2009年11月

長文は頭から理解していく(訳は一時的に忘れて、前に前に理解を進めましょう)


ニュース英語の目次はこちらです
記者会見で、米韓自由貿易協定(KORUS FTA*)について質問された際のオバマ大統領の発言です。
非常に長い1文です。必要な説明が後から後からくっついてきている、という感じです。
オバマ大統領、韓国の李明博(イミョンバク)大統領との会談からその文を見てみましょう。
* KORUS FTA = Korea – U.S. Free Trade Agreement (相互に関税を排除した貿易取引の協定)
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Now, with respect to the free trade agreement, I am a strong believer that both countries can benefit from expanding our trade ties. And so I have told President Lee and his team that I am committed to seeing the two countries work together to move this agreement forward. There are still issues that are being discussed and worked on and we have put our teams in place to make sure that we are covering all the issues that might be a barrier to final ratification of the agreement.
自由貿易協定に関して、米韓両国が取引拡大によって受ける恩恵は大きいと固く信じています。私はこの協定締結に向けて両国が前進するように注意を払っていくことを李大統領に約束しました。
まだ協議中であり進展中の懸案事項などがあります。そこで我々は協定の最終的な批准の妨げになるかもしれない全ての懸案事項について、それらをきちんと追いかけていくように組織を結成しました。
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太字で書いた一文は非常に長いですね。全文を読んでからでは理解しようとすると、頭で何を言っていたのかを忘れてしまうことになります。したがって「訳そうとせず」頭から解析(理解)してみようとしたほうが分かりやすいと思います。
理解は頭、訳はオシリからもご参照ください。
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There are still issues that are being discussed and worked on
いまだにstill懸案事項issuesがあります←協議中being discussedで進展中being worked on
and we have put our teams in place to make sure
組織を整えました←that以下のことを確かにするmake sureのための
that we are covering all the issues
すなわち全ての懸案事項issuesをカバーしている(ことを確かにする)←that以下の内容のissues
that might be a barrier to final ratification of the agreement.
自由貿易協定の最終的な批准ratificationの妨げbarrierになるかもしれない(という懸案事項issues)
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いかがですか?わかりますか?
日本語は前から前から説明していくのに対して英語は後ろからどんどん説明を加えていく感覚ですね。
したがって日本語に訳すときには、全て後ろから訳していくとピッタリくることになります。
このように英語と日本語では順番が根本的に異なるので同時通訳をする方は(それなりの工夫やテクニックがあるにしても)本当に大変なお仕事だと思います。
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仙台に行きます。12月19日(土)に焼き鳥屋さんに集まりませんか

12月に用事があって10年ぶりに仙台を訪問します。
もし「よっちゃんの顔でもみてやろうか」という方々がいらっしゃったら
12月19日(土)の夜に集まりませんか?
お店は例えば(ヤフー・グルメで検索しただけですが)
牛たん炭焼利久のようなお店はいかがでしょうか。
もし他におすすめのお店があれば教えてくださいね。
もし参加のご希望がなければ…ひとり寂しく牛たんを味わいますあせる
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インターネットのメール
いずれでも大歓迎ですビックリマーク
ひとりでも多くの方にお会いできたらうれしく思います。
よろしくお願いします(^O^)/

オバマ大統領、韓国の李明博(イミョンバク)大統領との会談


ニュースの目次はこちらです
11月19日、オバマ大統領と李明博(イミョンバク)韓国大統領の共同記者会見です。
朝鮮戦争の開始から来年で60年。現在の懸案は明らかに北朝鮮の「核の脅威」です。この問題解決に向け、オバマ大統領はボズワース北朝鮮担当特別代表を12月8日に訪朝させることを明らかにしました。
李大統領はGrand Bargain(北朝鮮が核廃棄すれば経済支援を一挙に行う「一括妥結方式」)を提唱しています。そしてオバマ大統領もわずかな進展ごとに見返りを与える「過去のパターン」は繰り返さないと強調しました。グランドバーゲンの具体的な中身は見えませんが12月8日の米朝会談の結果が注目されます。
また米韓自由貿易協定(FTA=Free Trade Agreement)に関しては、アメリカ国内で韓国車の輸出増に対する警戒感から反発が強く、今後の早期批准に向けた打開策を話し合われた様子ですが、実務者レベルの会合で更に長期にわたる調整が重ねられるのではないでしょうか。
PRESIDENT LEE: (As translated.) We have beautiful weather today. I know that yesterday we had sub-zero cold. And President Obama brought with him very nice weather. On behalf of the people of the Republic of Korea, I wish to extend our warmest welcome and greetings to President Obama and his delegation.
We know how much President Obama appreciates and understands the value of Korean and Asian cultures. I believe that President Obama’s global leadership, a leadership that is based on mutual respect and mutual goals, will help usher in an era of hope and renewal to the United States and better serve peace and prosperity throughout the world.
Having held three summit meetings with him, and having met many times in various multilateral settings over the past 10 months, I think I can say that we have indeed become very close friends. In particular, I think our discussions today have been particularly in depth and very fruitful, very honest talks. The relationship between our two countries is excellent and stands stronger than ever. President Obama and I believe that it can become even stronger. So we will continue to consult on specific ways to move our relationship forward.
President Obama and I reaffirmed the solid ROK-U.S. defense posture, including the extended deterrence. We also agreed to further develop our partnership so that it can become an example of what a strategic alliance of the 21st century should be by faithfully implementing the joint vision for the alliance adopted at our last meeting in June.
As part of these efforts, we agreed to have our foreign and defense ministers to meet and discuss specific ways to develop our alliance to the future sometime next year, which marks the 60th anniversary of the outbreak of the Korean War.
President Obama and I expressed our shared satisfaction that Korea and the United States are working closely together with regards to our approach vis-a-vis North Korea and the nuclear issue. We also reaffirmed our commitment to the complete and verifiable denuclearization of North Korea through the six-party talks. We fully share the view that the North Korean nuclear issue requires a definite and comprehensive resolution, as I described in our grand bargain, and agreed to closely consult on how to elaborate and implement this approach.
It is my hope that North Korea would accept our proposal so that we can usher in a new era in which North Korea can be assured of its security and its people can enjoy real improvements in their quality of life. We agreed to work closely together with the other countries in the six-party process to bring North Korea back to the six-party talks at an early date, and make sure that North Korea takes substantive measures towards its denuclearization.
Moreover, we noted our shared concern for North Korean humanitarian issues and agreed to work together to bring improvements in this area.
Meanwhile President Obama and I reaffirmed the economic and strategic importance of the Korea-U.S. free trade agreement. We agreed to redouble our efforts to move the agreement forward.
Noting with satisfaction the achievements of the G20 summit meeting in Pittsburgh, President Obama and I agreed to continue cooperating on implementing a framework for ensuring a strong sustainable and balanced growth. We also agreed to work together to ensure the success of next November’s G20 summit to be held here in Korea.
At the same time, we share the view that such global challenges as climate change, green growth, nonproliferation, and counterterrorism requires a collective response.
In particular I would like to commend President Obama’s endeavor towards a world without nuclear weapons, and in this respect the Republic of Korea intends to participate in and do its part to ensure the success of next April’s nuclear security summit in Washington, D.C.
I am very pleased that we were able to have candid discussions on important issues that confront us, and I’m happy that we produced fruitful outcomes.
I also wish to once again congratulate President Obama on his very successful trip to Asia. And let me once again join the Korean people in expressing to President Obama and his delegation our warmest sentiments of friendship.
Thank you.
PRESIDENT OBAMA: Well, it’s a great honor to be making my first trip to the Republic of Korea as President of the United States. I want to thank my good friend, President Lee, and the Korean people, for their extraordinary hospitality. And I have to say that the arrival ceremony for our state visit was as spectacular as any that we’ve seen.
I was privileged to host President Lee in Washington in June. As he mentioned, we’ve seen each other in many multilateral forums, as well, and we’ve developed a strong working relationship and friendship. And it’s a great pleasure to visit this beautiful city.
The Republic of Korea is a close and valued friend and ally of the United States. The strong bonds between our people were forged in the battles of the Korean War nearly 60 years ago. Our alliance, which is grounded in shared interests and values, has provided peace and security on this peninsula and in the region for many decades. And I’m pleased to say that our alliance has never been stronger than it is today.
The 60th anniversary of the outbreak of the Korean War presents an important opportunity to honor the service of our veterans, to reflect on the principles for which they fought, and to move forward in adapting our alliance to meet the challenges of the 21st century. As part of this process, we agreed that Secretaries Clinton and Gates will meet with their Korean counterparts next year to work on realizing our shared vision for the alliance going forward.
The Republic of Korea has made extraordinary progress in the six decades since the Korean War. Evidence of that progress can be seen in Korea’s strong democracy, its vibrant economy, but it can also be seen in Korea’s increasingly prominent role in global affairs. Indeed, in just one generation, the Republic of Korea has gone from a recipient of aid to a donor nation and — under the leadership of President Lee, a leader within the G20.
The United States has been proud to stand as a friend and ally of the Korean people throughout this period. And later today, I’ll also visit some of our servicemen and women, who represent America’s unwavering commitment to the security of this country. In going forward, I know that our two nations can strengthen our cooperation on a range of critical issues, including several that we discussed today.
On North Korea, our governments have maintained extraordinarily close cooperation, and President Lee and I are in full agreement on our common approach going forward. I reaffirmed my commitment to continue working together in the six-party process to achieve a definitive and comprehensive resolution of the nuclear issue. As a part of that effort, we will be sending Ambassador Bosworth to North Korea on December 8th to engage in direct talks with the North Koreans.
Our message is clear: If North Korea is prepared to take concrete and irreversible steps to fulfill its obligations and eliminate its nuclear weapons program, the United States will support economic assistance and help promote its full integration into the community of nations. That opportunity and respect will not come with threats — North Korea must live up to its obligations.
The Republic of Korea is also, obviously, a close trading partner of the United States, and the relationship between our nations advance our common prosperity. To strengthen those ties, President Lee and I discussed the U.S.-Korea free trade agreement, which holds out the promise of serving our mutual interests. And together, we’re committed to working together to move the agreement forward.
I also thanked President Lee for his leadership at the G20, as we continue our efforts to transition from rescuing the global economy to promoting balanced and sustainable growth. In that effort, Korea will play a critical role as a host for the G20 next year.
We also discussed the importance of promoting security and stability in Afghanistan and Pakistan, and I welcomed President Lee’s decision to establish a Provincial Reconstruction Team in Afghanistan. This important contribution will help support the strengthening of Afghan capacity, which is essential to achieving our goals in Afghanistan.
And finally, we agreed to coordinate our efforts to clean energy and climate change. I told President Lee that Korea’s recent announcement of an ambitious target for 2020 is a model for emerging economies. And building on the progress that we made at APEC and in Beijing, I will continue to work closely with President Lee to help pave the way for a successful outcome in Copenhagen next month.
Once again, I want to thank President Lee and the Korean people for their warm hospitality. I look forward to working with you, Mr. President, to strengthen a relationship that does so much to advance the mutual interests of our citizens. And as a fan of Korean culture and Korean barbecue, I’m also very much looking forward to lunch that we’ll be having in a few minutes. So thank you very much. Kamsa hamnida.
Q First of all, welcome to Korea, Mr. President. A question going out to President Lee regarding the North Korea nuclear issue. Do you envisage any timeline between Korea and the United States in order to resolve the North Korean nuclear issue? Do you have any deadlines about it? And also regarding the grand bargain proposal that you proposed to North Korea, how do you think that the North Koreans will react to your grand bargain proposal? And both of you mentioned the result of your talks, but what kind of things did you discuss regarding the KORUS FTA?
A question going out to President Obama on the KORUS FTA — the KORUS FTA is regarded here within Korea as something that will further strengthen bilateral relationship between Korea and the United States, and many Korean people are hopeful or hoping for the early ratification of the KORUS FTA. And I would just like to ask, Mr. President, of your strategic vision regarding the KORUS FTA?
And as for the grand bargain proposal, I would just like to ask you how much do you intend to cooperate with the South Koreans in implementing this?
PRESIDENT LEE: I think we promised to ask one question to one leader, but I think you’re asking many questions all at once. First of all, on North Korea nuclear issue and convincing North Korea to give up their nuclear weapons program, it is not a simple matter. We know that for sure. For the last 20 years or so, we’ve been dealing with the North Koreans and negotiating with the North Koreans. We would take one step forward and two steps back, and that has taken 20 years, and still we do not have a full resolvement of this issue.
Now, with President Obama and the White House, we were successful in passing and adopting a U.N. Security Council resolution. International cooperation is perfect in my opinion in terms of trying to resolve this issue peacefully, and I think we are entering into a new chapter in bringing this issue to an end.
I do not put any deadline to resolving this North Korean nuclear issue. Of course we would want to resolve this issue as soon as possible because that is critical for ensuring peace and stability of the region and the world. And so this is why I proposed a grand bargain proposal.
And what’s important is to really know whether North Korea has genuine intent to give up fully and verifiably their nuclear weapons program. We must find out the intention of the North Koreans, and as soon as we find out, the better it is. And the negotiations to convince North Korea to resolve their nuclear weapons issue, like I said, it is not going to be easy, but I believe it is possible that we can resolve this issue peacefully. So together with President Obama and the international community, we will work to resolve this issue.
About the grand bargain, the North Koreans haven’t yet conveyed what they thought of the grand bargain, but in order for the North Koreans to ensure their stability, to improve the lives of the North Korean population, to have economic prosperity — in short, for a better future the North Koreans — it is my wish that the North Koreans will adopt the grand bargain proposal.
And as for the KORUS FTA, I’m sure President Obama will be making a comment, so I’ll just listen.
PRESIDENT OBAMA: Well, first of all, with respect to North Korea, there’s going to be extraordinarily close coordination between our two countries, as there has been for many years.
The thing I want to emphasize is that President Lee and I both agree on the need to break the pattern that has existed in the past in which North Korea behaves in a provocative fashion; it then is willing to return to talks; it talks for a while and then leaves the talks seeking further concessions, and there’s never actually any progress on the core issues.
I think President Lee is exactly right, and my administration is taking the same approach, which is the door is open to resolving these issues peacefully, for North Korea to see over time the reduction of sanctions and its increasing integration into the international community — something that will be good for its people — but it will only happen if North Korea is taking serious steps around the nuclear issue. And we will not distracted by a whole host of other side items that end up generating a lot of meetings but not concrete action.
Now, with respect to the free trade agreement, I am a strong believer that both countries can benefit from expanding our trade ties. And so I have told President Lee and his team that I am committed to seeing the two countries work together to move this agreement forward. There are still issues that are being discussed and worked on and we have put our teams in place to make sure that we are covering all the issues that might be a barrier to final ratification of the agreement.
With respect to the United States, I think it’s important to understand — and I shared this with President Lee — that American companies and workers are very confident in our ability to compete and we recognize that there’s not only a economic but also a strategy interest in expanding our ties to South Korea. There is obviously also a concern within the United States around the incredible trade imbalances that have grown over the last several decades. Those imbalances are not as prominent with Korea, but there has been a tendency I think to lump all of Asia together when Congress looks at trade agreements and says it appears as if this is one-way street.
And one of my goals is to make sure that as we work through these issues, that the American people, American businesses, American workers recognize that we have to look at each agreement and each country on its own merits, and make sure that we can create the kind of win-win situation that I know President Lee is interested in seeing, as well.
I think that we’ve got a question. Julianna.
Q Thank you, Mr. President, President Lee. President Obama, it appears that Iran has rejected the international offer on its nuclear problem. What are the severe consequences that you threaten, and when will we see them?
And for President Lee, are you willing to open up your market to U.S. automobiles to get the Korean free trade agreement moving again?
PRESIDENT OBAMA: With respect to Iran, at the beginning of my administration we put in place a policy that we have executed as drawn up over the last several months. What we said was that we would take a new approach and say to Iran that we are willing to engage them directly; that we would organize the international community around a series of proposals that would permit Iran to show its intentions to give up any nuclear weapon programs and pursue peaceful nuclear energy under the framework of a nonproliferation regime; that even as we were organizing the international community to put forward a fair deal to the Iranians, that we would also move on a dual track and that we weren’t going to duplicate what has happened with North Korea in which talks just continue forever without any actual resolution to the issue — so that we indicated that our offer would be on the table for a certain period of time, and that when that time ran out, we would look at other approaches that would increase pressure on Iran to give up its nuclear weapons program.
Since that time, through the auspices of the International Atomic Energy Agency, as well as the P5-plus-1, we put forward such a proposal, one in which low-enriched uranium could be removed from Iran, processed outside of Iran, returned to them in a way that couldn’t be weaponized and used for research purposes.
The fairness of the deal I think is confirmed by the fact that Russia, China, the other members of the P5-plus-1, as well as Mohamed ElBaredei, the Secretary General of the IAEA, all confirmed that this was a smart, creative proposal that could lead to a path in which Iran was no longer in breach of its international agreements, and that Iran should accept them.
Iran has taken weeks now and has not shown its willingness to say yes to this proposal. And I have not seen the report that you’re referring to today, but we’ve seen indications that, whether it’s for internal political reasons or because they are stuck in some of their own rhetoric, they have been unable to get to yes.
And so as a consequence, we have begun discussions with our international partners about the importance of having consequences; that the dual-track approach requires Iran to get a clear message that when it fails to take advantage of these opportunities, that in fact it is not making itself more secure, it’s making itself less secure. And our expectation is, is that over the next several weeks we will be developing a package of potential steps that we could take that will indicate our seriousness to Iran.
I continue to hold out the prospect that they may decide to walk through this door. I hope they do. But what I’m pleased about is the extraordinary international unity that we’ve seen. If you think at the beginning of the year how disjointed international efforts were and how uneven perceptions were about Iran’s nuclear program and where we are today, I think it’s an indication that we’ve taken the right approach.
PRESIDENT LEE: With regards to the automobile, in principle I believe in free trade and I believe that the international community must strengthen free trade. The last two decades or so I think free trade and the movement of goods and services was the driving force behind the development and economic prosperity that we enjoy today.
But at the same time, I also believe that the global economy should grow in a more sustained and balanced way, as well. If there are any imbalances between two economies, it should be corrected. And this is a topic and an agenda that is being discussed within the G20 forum, and this is something that President Obama and I talked about, as well.
For me, Korea and the United States, the facts are clear,
trade imbalances between our two countries is not great. I think it is safe to say that we have almost a balanced account between Korea and the United States. Of course, when Korea was a closed economy with protectionist measures, there were some trade imbalances. But compared to countries like China and Japan, the trade imbalances between our two countries is very miniscule.
And President Obama, as he mentioned in his brief remarks just now, he said that all different economies should be judged on their own merits, and free trade agreements is not an exception. And he and I had very candid and frank discussions and forward-looking discussions between us today during the meeting on how to move the KORUS FTA forward. And I very much appreciate President Obama for engaging in such discussions.
In the United States I think there is a misperception that KORUS FTA, once it is passed, that it is somehow going to only benefit Korea and be detrimental to American consumers, which is not true. Of course there are economic perspectives to take into consideration, but there are — a much bigger strategic perspective to this. And I believe overall this is beneficial for both Korea and the United States.
Of course each industry will be impacted differently. Here in Korea the service sector, the agricultural sector, they are completely against the passage of the KORUS FTA because they lag far behind their American counterparts. But for us, the Korean government, we view the KORUS FTA in a more comprehensive matter. Overall it is beneficial for us in the long term.
If there is any problems in the automobile sector, like you asked, then we are ready to resolve this issue. There are other automobile manufacturers, like in the Europeans — as we all know, they produce a tremendous number of automobiles, and we have a free trade agreement with the 27-member European Union, and we have an agreement which has been signed. And we are engaging more and more with our European partners.
And so I think we should have more opportunities to talk about these issues with each other. And on this issue, President Obama and I talked about in detail again how to move forward this agreement. I believe that, again, this is beneficial for both Korea and the United States.
Thank you. We will be now concluding the joint press availability between Korea and the U.S.
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本のご案内はこちらです

strengthen=強化する(オシリに -enがついたら~するの意味)


ニュース英語の目次はこちらです
strongの意味は?「強い」ですね。
strengthならば?「強さ」という名詞ですね。
ではstrengthenとオシリにenがつくとどうなるでしょうか。
答えは「strengthen=強くする」になります。
同様の例をあげてみますね。
sweetの意味は「甘い」ですね。
ではsweetenの意味は?もう想像がつきますよね。
答えは「sweeten=甘くする」ですね。
単語のオシリにつく -en は接尾辞と言いますが、頭にくっつく接頭辞でも同じです。
語源2, EN対DEも参照してください。
語源の知識は意味を推測するのに便利ですよね。
オバマ演説、サントリーホール 11月14日から以下の文を見てみましょう。
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From my very first days in office, we have worked to strengthen the ties that bind our nations. The first foreign leader that I welcomed to the White House was the Prime Minister of Japan, and for the first time in nearly 50 years, the first foreign trip by an American Secretary of State, Hillary Clinton, was to Asia, starting in Japan.
私が政権をとった最初の日から日本・アメリカ2国間の結びつきを強化することに取り組んできました。私がホワイトハウスにお招きした海外首脳の最初の人物は鳩山首相でした。そしてほぼ50年ぶりに国務省長官(ヒラリー・クリントン氏)の初の外遊先はアジアであり、それは日本を最初の訪問地としてスタートしたのです。
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ちなみに tie は「結ぶ」という動詞、あるいは「結びつき」という名詞の意味があります。
ネクタイはnecktieですが、普通は tie と言いますね。
もう日本語と言ってもいいと思いますが「同点」も tie です。
The game ended in a tie.(試合の結果は同点だった)
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本のご案内はこちらです

「, where」は「そしてそこで」と訳してみましょう


ニュース英語の目次はこちらです
長文を読んでいると「~, which …」のような文章が出てきます。
不思議ですよねぇ。whichと言えば関係代名詞といって次のような文に使うんでしたね。
The which I bought was expensive.(ぼくが買ったペンは高かった)
しかし「~, which …」という不思議な文章が実際に存在しているのです。
むずかしい言葉では(非制限用法)というようですが、それはとりあえず忘れましょう。
結論からいえば「~, which …」でつながったら「~、そしてそれは」と訳すといいですよ。
He said he was a teacher, which was not true.
(彼は教師だったと言った、しかしそれは本当のことではなかった)
しかし私達はもっと単純な言い方にしましょう。
He said he was a teacher. But it was not true.
ね!このように短い文でつなげた方が楽ですよね。
これは「~, which …」だけに限りません。
Wで始まる単語、例えばwhereでも同様です。
オバマ演説、サントリーホール 11月14日から以下の文を見てみましょう。
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It is wonderful to be back in Japan. Some of you may be aware that when I was a young boy, my mother brought me to Kamakura, where I looked up at that centuries-old symbol of peace and tranquility — the great bronze Amida Buddha. And as a child, I was more focused on the matcha ice cream. (Laughter.)
日本に戻ってくることが出来てとても嬉しく感じています。ご存知の方もいらっしゃるかと思いますが、私は幼いころに母に連れられて鎌倉にきたことがあります。そしてそこで何世紀にもわたって平和と静安の象徴であった大きな青銅の大仏を見上げました。そして私は子どもだったので大仏よりも抹茶アイスクリームにもっと惹かれました。
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この「~, which …」あるいは「~, where …」の使い方は複雑で混乱を招くので、あえて省略します。
先ず普通のwhich, whereの使い方を身につけることが大切です。
ただし文章に「~, which …」などが出てきたら、そこでいったん文を終わらせるように訳してみると日本語としてしっくりくる場合が多いと思いますよ。
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オバマ演説、サントリーホール 11月14日


ニュースの目次はこちらです
今回のオバマ大統領のアジア歴訪は「儀式」的な色彩が濃く、各国と友好を深め、今後の方針を確認するものに終わった(率直に言えば具体的な成果に乏しい)ものであった印象です。全てはそれがどのように今後の政策と行動に生かされていくかで判断しなければならないでしょう。
しかし私はそれが無意味だったとは全く思いません。前政権であれば決して掲げなかったであろう積極的な「核軍縮」への取り組みや、「環境問題」に正面から立ち向かうどころかグリーンエネルギーを新たな産業として立ち上げる前向きな決意など、オバマ氏なればこその方向性が確立されています。
人は夢を語ることからスタートするのではないでしょうか。ジョン・F・ケネディ大統領は、人間を月に到達させるというアポロ計画を発表しました。目先の費用対効果やリスクを計算すれば荒唐無稽の話だったかもしれません。しかしその夢がなければ、今日の科学技術の発展には至らなかったことでしょう。
オバマ大統領が中国に3日滞在するのに対して(フォートフッド事件の影響があり)日本の滞在が1日だったことに落胆する必要は無いと思います。イギリス、カナダ等の友好国とはいつも短期間であり、問題あるいは懸案がある国に対してこそ長時間の対話が必要とされるのは常なのですから。
北朝鮮の核問題には中国の協力が欠かせません。初対面から中国の人権問題を直接的に指摘することもないでしょう。先ず友好関係を確認した上で環境問題(CO2排出大国同士として)への積極的な関与を促し、地球資源の奪い合い競争にもバランスをとるように長期的な進展をもたらすことを期待しています。
(全訳は読売新聞のサイトをご参照ください)
Thank you so much. Arigatou. Thank you very much. (Applause.) Good morning. It is a great honor to be in Tokyo — the first stop on my first visit to Asia as President of the United States. (Applause.) Thank you. It is good to be among so many of you — Japanese and I see a few Americans here — (applause) — who work every day to strengthen the bonds between our two countries, including my longtime friend and our new ambassador to Japan, John Roos. (Applause.)
It is wonderful to be back in Japan. Some of you may be aware that when I was a young boy, my mother brought me to Kamakura, where I looked up at that centuries-old symbol of peace and tranquility — the great bronze Amida Buddha. And as a child, I was more focused on the matcha ice cream. (Laughter.) And I want to thank Prime Minister Hatoyama for sharing some of those memories with more ice cream last night at dinner. (Laughter and applause.) Thank you very much. But I have never forgotten the warmth and the hospitality that the Japanese people showed a young American far from home.
And I feel that same spirit on this visit: In the gracious welcome of Prime Minister Hatoyama. In the extraordinary honor of the meeting with Their Imperial Majesties, the Emperor and Empress, on the 20th anniversary of his ascension to the Chrysanthemum Throne. In the hospitality shown by the Japanese people. And of course, I could not come here without sending my greetings and gratitude to the citizens of Obama, Japan. (Applause.)
Now, I am beginning my journey here for a simple reason. Since taking office, I have worked to renew American leadership and pursue a new era of engagement with the world based on mutual interests and mutual respect. And our efforts in the Asia Pacific will be rooted, in no small measure, through an enduring and revitalized alliance between the United States and Japan.
From my very first days in office, we have worked to strengthen the ties that bind our nations. The first foreign leader that I welcomed to the White House was the Prime Minister of Japan, and for the first time in nearly 50 years, the first foreign trip by an American Secretary of State, Hillary Clinton, was to Asia, starting in Japan. (Applause.)
In two months, our alliance will mark its 50th anniversary — a day when President Dwight Eisenhower stood next to Japan’s Prime Minister and said that our two nations were creating “an indestructible partnership” based on “equality and mutual understanding.”
In the half-century since, that alliance has endured as a foundation for our security and prosperity. It has helped us become the world’s two largest economies, with Japan emerging as America’s second-largest trading partner outside of North America. It has evolved as Japan has played a larger role on the world stage, and made important contributions to stability around the world — from reconstruction in Iraq, to combating piracy off the Horn of Africa, to assistance for the people of Afghanistan and Pakistan — most recently through its remarkable leadership in providing additional commitments to international development efforts there.
Above all, our alliance has endured because it reflects our common values — a belief in the democratic right of free people to choose their own leaders and realize their own dreams; a belief that made possible the election of both Prime Minister Hatoyama and myself on the promise of change. And together, we are committed to providing a new generation of leadership for our people and our alliance.
That is why, at this critical moment in history, the two of us have not only reaffirmed our alliance — we’ve agreed to deepen it. We’ve agreed to move expeditiously through a joint working group to implement the agreement that our two governments reached on restructuring U.S. forces in Okinawa. And as our alliance evolves and adapts for the future, we will always strive to uphold the spirit that President Eisenhower described long ago — a partnership of equality and mutual respect. (Applause.)
But while our commitment to this region begins in Japan, it doesn’t end here. The United States of America may have started as a series of ports and cities along the Atlantic Ocean, but for generations we have also been a nation of the Pacific. Asia and the United States are not separated by this great ocean; we are bound by it. We are bound by our past — by the Asian immigrants who helped build America, and the generations of Americans in uniform who served and sacrificed to keep this region secure and free. We are bound by our shared prosperity — by the trade and commerce upon which millions of jobs and families depend. And we are bound by our people — by the Asian Americans who enrich every segment of American life, and all the people whose lives, like our countries, are interwoven.
My own life is a part of that story. I am an American President who was born in Hawaii and lived in Indonesia as a boy. My sister Maya was born in Jakarta, and later married a Chinese-Canadian. My mother spent nearly a decade working in the villages of Southeast Asia, helping women buy a sewing machine or an education that might give them a foothold in the world economy. So the Pacific Rim has helped shape my view of the world.
And since that time, perhaps no region has changed as swiftly or dramatically. Controlled economies have given way to open markets. Dictatorships have become democracies. Living standards have risen while poverty has plummeted. And through all these changes, the fortunes of America and the Asia Pacific have become more closely linked than ever before.
So I want everyone to know, and I want everybody in America to know, that we have a stake in the future of this region, because what happens here has a direct effect on our lives at home. This is where we engage in much of our commerce and buy many of our goods. And this is where we can export more of our own products and create jobs back home in the process. This is a place where the risk of a nuclear arms race threatens the security of the wider world, and where extremists who defile a great religion plan attacks on both our continents. And there can be no solution to our energy security and our climate challenge without the rising powers and developing nations of the Asia Pacific.
To meet these common challenges, the United States looks to strengthen old alliances and build new partnerships with the nations of this region. To do this, we look to America’s treaty alliances with Japan, South Korea, Australia, Thailand and the Philippines — alliances that are not historical documents from a bygone era, but abiding commitments to each other that are fundamental to our shared security.
These alliances continue to provide the bedrock of security and stability that has allowed the nations and peoples of this region to pursue opportunity and prosperity that was unimaginable at the time of my first childhood visit to Japan. And even as American troops are engaged in two wars around the world, our commitment to Japan’s security and to Asia’s security is unshakeable — (applause) — and it can be seen in our deployments throughout the region — above all, through our young men and women in uniform, of whom I am so proud.
Now, we look to emerging nations that are poised as well to play a larger role — both in the Asia Pacific region and the wider world; places like Indonesia and Malaysia that have adopted democracy, developed their economies, and tapped the great potential of their own people.
We look to rising powers with the view that in the 21st century, the national security and economic growth of one country need not come at the expense of another. I know there are many who question how the United States perceives China’s emergence. But as I have said, in an interconnected world, power does not need to be a zero-sum game, and nations need not fear the success of another. Cultivating spheres of cooperation — not competing spheres of influence — will lead to progress in the Asia Pacific. (Applause.)
Now, as with any nation, America will approach China with a focus on our interests. And it’s precisely for this reason that it is important to pursue pragmatic cooperation with China on issues of mutual concern, because no one nation can meet the challenges of the 21st century alone, and the United States and China will both be better off when we are able to meet them together. That’s why we welcome China’s effort to play a greater role on the world stage — a role in which their growing economy is joined by growing responsibility. China’s partnership has proved critical in our effort to jumpstart economic recovery. China has promoted security and stability in Afghanistan and Pakistan. And it is now committed to the global nonproliferation regime, and supporting the pursuit of denuclearization of the Korean Peninsula.
So the United States does not seek to contain China, nor does a deeper relationship with China mean a weakening of our bilateral alliances. On the contrary, the rise of a strong, prosperous China can be a source of strength for the community of nations.
And so in Beijing and beyond, we will work to deepen our strategic and economic dialogue, and improve communication between our militaries. Of course, we will not agree on every issue, and the United States will never waver in speaking up for the fundamental values that we hold dear — and that includes respect for the religion and cultures of all people — because support for human rights and human dignity is ingrained in America. But we can move these discussions forward in a spirit of partnership rather than rancor.
In addition to our bilateral relations, we also believe that the growth of multilateral organizations can advance the security and prosperity of this region. I know that the United States has been disengaged from many of these organizations in recent years. So let me be clear: Those days have passed. As a Asia Pacific nation, the United States expects to be involved in the discussions that shape the future of this region, and to participate fully in appropriate organizations as they are established and evolve. (Applause.)
That is the work that I will begin on this trip. The Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation forum will continue to promote regional commerce and prosperity, and I look forward to participating in that forum this evening. ASEAN will remain a catalyst for Southeast Asian dialogue, cooperation and security, and I look forward to becoming the first American President to meet with all 10 ASEAN leaders. (Applause.) And the United States looks forward to engaging with the East Asia Summit more formally as it plays a role in addressing the challenges of our time.
We seek this deeper and broader engagement because we know our collective future depends on it. And I’d like to speak for a bit about what that future might look like, and what we must do to advance our prosperity, our security, and our universal values and aspirations.
First, we must strengthen our economic recovery, and pursue growth that is both balanced and sustained.
The quick, unprecedented and coordinated action taken by Asia Pacific nations and others has averted economic catastrophe, and helped us to begin to emerge from the worst recession in generations. And we have taken the historic step of reforming our international economic architecture, so that the G20 is now the premier forum for international economic cooperation.
Now, this shift to the G20, along with the greater voice that is being given to Asian nations in international financial institutions, clearly demonstrates the broader, more inclusive engagement that America seeks in the 21st century. And as a key member of the G8, Japan has and will continue to play a leading and vital role in shaping the future of the international financial architecture. (Applause.)
Now that we are on the brink of economic recovery, we must also ensure that it can be sustained. We simply cannot return to the same cycles of boom and bust that led to a global recession. We can’t follow the same policies that led to such imbalanced growth. One of the important lessons this recession has taught us is the limits of depending primarily on American consumers and Asian exports to drive growth — because when Americans found themselves too heavily in debt or lost their jobs and were out of work, demand for Asian goods plummeted. When demand fell sharply, exports from this region fell sharply. Since the economies of this region are so dependent on exports, they stopped growing. And the global recession only deepened.
So we have now reached one of those rare inflection points in history where we have the opportunity to take a different path. And that must begin with the G20 pledge that we made in Pittsburgh to pursue a new strategy for balanced economic growth.
I’ll be saying more about this in Singapore, but in the United States, this new strategy will mean that we save more and spend less, reform our financial systems, reduce our long-term deficit and borrowing. It will also mean a greater emphasis on exports that we can build, produce, and sell all over the world. For America, this is a jobs strategy. Right now, our exports support millions upon millions of well-paying American jobs. Increasing those exports by just a small amount has the potential to create millions more. These are jobs making everything from wind turbines and solar panels to the technology that you use every day.
For Asia, striking this better balance will provide an opportunity for workers and consumers to enjoy higher standards of living that their remarkable increases in productivity have made possible. It will allow for greater investments in housing and infrastructure and the service sector. And a more balanced global economy will lead to prosperity that reaches further and deeper.
For decades, the United States has had one of the most open markets in the world, and that openness has helped to fuel the success of so many countries in this region and others over the last century. In this new era, opening other markets around the globe will be critical not just to America’s prosperity, but to the world’s, as well.
An integral part of this new strategy is working towards an ambitious and balanced Doha agreement — not any agreement, but an agreement that will open up markets and increase exports around the world. We are ready to work with our Asian partners to see if we can achieve that objective in a timely fashion — and we invite our regional trading partners to join us at the table.
We also believe that continued integration of the economies of this region will benefit workers, consumers, and businesses in all our nations. Together, with our South Korean friends, we will work through the issues necessary to move forward on a trade agreement with them. The United States will also be engaging with the Trans-Pacific Partnership countries with the goal of shaping a regional agreement that will have broad-based membership and the high standards worthy of a 21st century trade agreement.
Working in partnership, this is how we can sustain this recovery and advance our common prosperity. But it’s not enough to pursue growth that is balanced. We also need growth that is sustainable — for our planet and the future generations that will live here.
Already, the United States has taken more steps to combat climate change in 10 months than we have in our recent history — (applause) — by embracing the latest science, by investing in new energy, by raising efficiency standards, forging new partnerships, and engaging in international climate negotiations. In short, America knows there is more work to do — but we are meeting our responsibility, and will continue to do so.
And that includes striving for success in Copenhagen. I have no illusions that this will be easy, but the contours of a way forward are clear. All nations must accept their responsibility. Those nations, like my own, who have been the leading emitters must have clear reduction targets. Developing countries will need to take substantial actions to curb their emissions, aided by finance and technology. And there must be transparency and accountability for domestic actions.
Each of us must do what we can to grow our economies without endangering our planet — and we must do it together. But the good news is that if we put the right rules and incentives in place, it will unleash the creative power of our best scientists, engineers, and entrepreneurs. It will lead to new jobs, new businesses, and entire new industries. And Japan has been at the forefront on this issue. We are looking forward to being a important partner with you as we achieve this critical global goal. (Applause.)
Yet, even as we confront this challenge of the 21st century, we must also redouble our efforts to meet a threat to our security that is the legacy of the 20th century — the danger posed by nuclear weapons.
In Prague, I affirmed America’s commitment to rid the world of nuclear weapons, and laid out a comprehensive agenda to pursue this goal. (Applause.) I am pleased that Japan has joined us in this effort, for no two nations on Earth know better what these weapons can do, and together we must seek a future without them. This is fundamental to our common security, and this is a great test of our common humanity. Our very future hangs in the balance.
Now, let me be clear: So long as these weapons exist, the United States will maintain a strong and effective nuclear deterrent that guarantees the defense of our allies — including South Korea and Japan. (Applause.)
But we must recognize that an escalating nuclear arms race in this region would undermine decades of growth and prosperity. So we are called upon to uphold the basic bargain of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty — that all nations have a right to peaceful nuclear energy; that nations with nuclear weapons have a responsibility to move toward nuclear disarmament; and those without nuclear weapons have a responsibility to forsake them.
Indeed, Japan serves as an example to the world that true peace and power can be achieved by taking this path. (Applause.) For decades, Japan has enjoyed the benefits of peaceful nuclear energy, while rejecting nuclear arms development — and by any measure, this has increased Japan’s security and enhanced its position.
To meet our responsibilities and to move forward with the agenda I laid out in Prague, we have passed, with the help of Japan, a unanimous U.N. Security Council resolution embracing this international effort. We are pursuing a new agreement with Russia to reduce our nuclear stockpiles. We will work to ratify and bring into force the test ban treaty. (Applause.) And next year at our Nuclear Security Summit, we will advance our goal of securing all the world’s vulnerable nuclear materials within four years.
Now, as I’ve said before, strengthening the global nonproliferation regime is not about singling out any individual nations. It’s about all nations living up to their responsibilities. That includes the Islamic Republic of Iran. And it includes North Korea.
For decades, North Korea has chosen a path of confrontation and provocation, including the pursuit of nuclear weapons. It should be clear where this path leads. We have tightened sanctions on Pyongyang. We have passed the most sweeping U.N. Security Council resolution to date to restrict their weapons of mass destruction activities. We will not be cowed by threats, and we will continue to send a clear message through our actions, and not just our words: North Korea’s refusal to meet its international obligations will lead only to less security — not more.
Yet there is another path that can be taken. Working in tandem with our partners — supported by direct diplomacy — the United States is prepared to offer North Korea a different future. Instead of an isolation that has compounded the horrific repression of its own people, North Korea could have a future of international integration. Instead of gripping poverty, it could have a future of economic opportunity — where trade and investment and tourism can offer the North Korean people the chance at a better life. And instead of increasing insecurity, it could have a future of greater security and respect. This respect cannot be earned through belligerence. It must be reached by a nation that takes its place in the international community by fully living up to its international obligations.
So the path for North Korea to realize this future is clear: a return to the six-party talks; upholding previous commitments, including a return to the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty; and the full and verifiable denuclearization of the Korean Peninsula. And full normalization with its neighbors can also only come if Japanese families receive a full accounting of those who have been abducted. (Applause.) These are all steps that can be taken by the North Korean government if they are interested in improving the lives of their people and joining the community of nations.
And as we are vigilant in confronting this challenge, we will stand with all of our Asian partners in combating the transnational threats of the 21st century: by rooting out the extremists who slaughter the innocent, and stopping the piracy that threatens our sea lanes; by enhancing our efforts to stop infectious disease, and working to end extreme poverty in our time; and by shutting down the traffickers who exploit women, children and migrants, and putting a stop to this scourge of modern-day slavery once and for all. Indeed, the final area in which we must work together is in upholding the fundamental rights and dignity of all human beings.
The Asia Pacific region is rich with many cultures. It is marked by extraordinary traditions and strong national histories. And time and again, we have seen the remarkable talent and drive of the peoples of this region in advancing human progress. Yet this much is also clear — indigenous cultures and economic growth have not been stymied by respect for human rights; they have been strengthened by it. Supporting human rights provides lasting security that cannot be purchased in any other way — that is the story that can be seen in Japan’s democracy, just as it can be seen in America’s democracy.
The longing for liberty and dignity is a part of the story of all peoples. For there are certain aspirations that human beings hold in common: the freedom to speak your mind, and choose your leaders; the ability to access information, and worship how you please; confidence in the rule of law, and the equal administration of justice. These are not impediments to stability, they are the cornerstones of stability. And we will always stand on the side of those who seek these rights.
That truth, for example, guides our new approach to Burma. Despite years of good intentions, neither sanctions by the United States nor engagement by others succeeded in improving the lives of the Burmese people. So we are now communicating directly with the leadership to make it clear that existing sanctions will remain until there are concrete steps toward democratic reform. We support a Burma that is unified, peaceful, prosperous, and democratic. And as Burma moves in that direction, a better relationship with the United States is possible.
There are clear steps that must be taken — the unconditional release of all political prisoners, including Aung San Suu Kyi; an end to conflicts with minority groups; and a genuine dialogue between the government, the democratic opposition and minority groups on a shared vision for the future. That is how a government in Burma will be able to respond to the needs of its people. That is the path that will bring Burma true security and prosperity. (Applause.)
These are steps that the United States will take to improve prosperity, security, and human dignity in the Asia Pacific. We will do so through our close friendship with Japan — which will always be a centerpiece of our efforts in the region. We will do so as a partner — through the broader engagement that I’ve discussed today. We will do so as a Pacific nation — with a President who was shaped in part by this piece of the globe. And we will do so with the same sense of purpose that has guided our ties with the Japanese people for nearly 50 years.
The story of how these ties were forged dates back to the middle of the last century, sometime after the guns of war had quieted in the Pacific. It was then that America’s commitment to the security and stability of Japan, along with the Japanese peoples’ spirit of resilience and industriousness, led to what’s been called “the Japanese miracle” — a period of economic growth that was faster and more robust than anything the world had seen for some time.
In the coming years and decades, this miracle would spread throughout the region, and in a single generation the lives and fortunes of millions were forever changed for the better. It is progress that has been supported by a hard-earned peace, and strengthened by new bridges of mutual understanding that have bound together the nations of this vast and sprawling space.
But we know that there’s still work to be done — so that new breakthroughs in science and technology can lead to jobs on both sides of the Pacific, and security from a warming planet; so that we can reverse the spread of deadly weapons, and — on a divided peninsula — the people of South can be freed from fear, and those in the North can live free from want; so that a young girl can be valued not for her body but for her mind; and so that young people everywhere can go as far as their talent and their drive and their choices will take them.
None of this will come easy, nor without setback or struggle. But at this moment of renewal — in this land of miracles — history tells us it is possible. This is the –America’s agenda. This is the purpose of our partnership with Japan, and with the nations and peoples of this region. And there must be no doubt: As America’s first Pacific President, I promise you that this Pacific nation will strengthen and sustain our leadership in this vitally important part of the world.
Thank you very much. (Applause.)
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short term(短期的)⇔long term(長期的)


ニュース英語の目次はこちらです
アメリカの外資系企業に勤務して疑問に感じたことは「視野が短期的過ぎない?」ということです。
日本企業ならば1年毎の決算(Annual Report=年次報告書)を重視するのに対し、3ヶ月毎(Quarterly Report)の結果を気にしすぎると感じました。
また日本企業では伝統的に「従業員の幸せを第一」に考えるのが当然とされてきたと思います。
しかしそこから違いました。「株主の利益」をいかに確保するか、それが最優先で考えられていました。
何故なら、それによってトップの首が簡単にすげかえらるため、保身に走る傾向があるからです。
(ところでグローバライゼーション=アメリカナイゼーションという実態がありますね。
 日本企業も最近はアメリカ流の短期的視野に惑わされすぎていませんでしょうか。
 投資家を大切にするよりも「先ず従業員を大切に」することが結果として皆の幸せ
 …お客様も投資家も…に結びつく、そういう日本流の経営をもっと目にしたいものです)
そんなことで企業の長期的反映を確保することができるのでしょうか?将来への投資ができるでしょうか?
せっかくデジタル化に軸足を移す方針を決定しておきながら、目先の利益の確保のために、将来の収束が予測されるアナログ事業に回帰することに豹変し…その後は決して明るい足取りではありませんでした。
もちろん全ての企業がそうだというつもりはありません。しかし伝統と歴史を誇りながら「大企業病」に苛まれると、そういう悲劇もあるという一例です。ベンチャー企業あるいはオーナー経営の会社は違うでしょう。むしろ「将来の成長の危機」に焦点をあてているでしょうから。
米GDP、7―9月期は3.5%成長から以下の文を見てみましょう。
===
These investments aren’t just helping us recover in the short term, they’re helping to lay a new foundation for lasting prosperity in the long term.
これらの投資はただ単に短期的な景気回復に貢献するのではなく、長期的な繁栄への新たな基盤作りに貢献するものです。
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例えば景気刺激策としての「道路建設」そのものは、その工事が完成するまでの短期的な雇用確保にしかなりませんね。しかしその副次的効果として「インフラの充実」が長期的反映への礎になる、という主張です。(そのためにクリーンエネルギーのような「新たな産業の創出」が並行して実施されています)
ビジネスの世界でもlong term relationship(長期的な関係)の重視がよくうたわれます。
人間関係では、それはさらに大切なことですね。
皆さん、これからも長いおつきあいをどうぞよろしくお願いします(^O^)
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本のご案内はこちらです

substitue=代わり


ニュース英語の目次はこちらです米GDP、7―9月期は3.5%成長から以下の文を見てみましょう。
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Now, economic growth is no substitute for job growth. And we will likely see further job losses in the coming days, a fact that is both troubling for our economy and heartbreaking for the men and women who suddenly find themselves out of work.
経済成長は、雇用の増加に取って代わるものではありません。そして今まで以上の失業者の数字を近日中に確認することにもなりそうです。それは突然職を失う人々にとって胸の張り裂けそうなことであり経済への打撃でもあります。
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ここでは「GDPが増えたからといって雇用が増えない=失業者が減らない=限り喜べない」という趣旨をこのように表現していると考えられます。以下の例文も参考になるでしょう
There is no substitute for life. (人の命に代わるものはない)
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honorの発音、オナーあるいはアナー、どっちを選びますか

ニュース英語の目次はこちらです
今朝の記事honored 栄誉を与えられる、光栄に思うですがhonorの発音に中位しましょう。
honorから「ほなー」と言ってしまいそうですが発音は「オナー」又は「アナー」ですね。
人によるので好みでいいと思うのですが、私は「アナー」を使っています。
その理由は・・・
honorableという形容詞があるんですよ。「栄誉な」「名誉ある」などの意味があります。
honorable family(名門)
honorable death(名誉の死)
この単語honorableを発音するのに「オナー」を適用すると…
オナラブル
オナラ…ぶる?
おなら(〃∇〃) ぶる叫び
ね!なんだか(おならしたみたいで)照れちゃいませんか?ラブラブ!
というわけでhonorableは、私はアナラブルを選んでいます(^O^)/
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本のご案内はこちらです

honored 栄誉を与えられる、光栄に思う


ニュース英語の目次はこちらです
初めて会ったときの決まり文句がありますね。
Nice to meet you.(会えて嬉しいです)
それをとっても改まった言い方にすると、こういう表現がありますね。
I’m honored to be here.(ここにお招きいただき光栄です
大変に公式の場、例えばクリントン長官が来日したときにこの表現を耳にしました。
フォートフッド基地での銃乱射事件の追悼式典への出席から以下の文を見てみましょう。
Their memory will be honored in the places they lived and by the people they touched.
犠牲者13名の記憶は、栄誉をもって、彼らが生きた場所と接してきた人々の胸に残ることでしょう。
このようにbe honoredで「栄誉が与えられる、表彰される」などの意味でも使われますね。
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読者登録は大歓迎です!→読者になる
本のご案内はこちらです